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Diagnosis can, in some cases, be confirmed using an in-office immunochromatographic test kit intended for detection of fecal CPV antigen. However, fecal antigen is detectable only for a short time after infection; false-negative results are common.
Differential diagnoses include other causes of profound depression, leukopenia, and GI signs. Salmonellosis and infections with feline leukemia virus FeLV and feline immunodeficiency virus should be considered.
FPV infections combined with various salmonellae or feline calicivirus cause much more severe disease than FPV alone.
Successful treatment of acute cases of feline panleukopenia requires vigorous fluid therapy and supportive nursing care in the isolation unit.
Electrolyte disturbances eg, hypokalemia , hypoglycemia, hypoproteinemia, anemia, and opportunistic secondary infections often develop in severely affected cats.
Anticipation of these possibilities, close monitoring, and prompt intervention can improve outcome. In addition to crystalloid infusion, transfusion of fresh-frozen plasma helps support plasma oncotic pressure and provides clotting factors to severely ill, hypoproteinemic kittens.
It also provides some anti-FPV antibodies. Whole blood is preferable for the occasional cat that is severely anemic.
Parenteral, broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy is indicated; however, nephrotoxic drugs eg, aminoglycosides must be avoided until dehydration has been fully corrected.
Because of the nephrotoxic potential of the gentamicin , urinary protein dipstick findings, sequential urine sediments, and serum SDMA or creatinine should be monitored.
There are single antibiotic agents, albeit more expensive, that are effective against the anaerobes and gram-negative aerobes that are the most important bacteria in feline panleukopenia.
These include third-generation cephalosporins eg, ceftiofur, cefotaxime and extended penicillins eg, piperacillin.
Antiemetic therapy eg, maropitant, ondansetron or metoclopramide usually provides some relief and allows earlier enteral feeding of soft, easily digested food.
Maropitant is the first-choice anti-emetic. In severely affected cats it can be combined with ondansetron. Feeding little and often should be commenced as early as possible, even in the face of mild, intermittent, persistent vomiting.
Feeding promotes healing of the GI mucosa and re-establishment of an effective mucosal barrier. Cats with severe vomiting should not be fed until the vomiting is better controlled.
Parenteral nutrition is indicated only for the most severely affected cases, and its use should not delay vigorous attempts to start enteral feeding.
Although rFeIFN is not approved by the FDA for this purpose and has not been proven effective in feline panleukopenia, it is approved and effective in the treatment of canine parvoviral enteritis.
Passive immunotherapy using immune serum from solidly immune cats, or using a commercial product raised in horses, is widely practiced in some countries.
There is limited evidence of treatment efficacy, however. Excellent inactivated and modified-live virus vaccines that provide solid, long-lasting immunity are available for prevention of feline panleukopenia.
Most authorities recommend that kittens receive two or three modified-live vaccine doses SC, 3—4 weeks apart. The first vaccination is usually given at 6—9 weeks of age.
The last dose of the initial vaccination series should not be administered before the kitten is 16 weeks old, to allow time for interfering maternal antibodies to wane so they do not inactivate the modified-live vaccine virus.
A followup vaccine dose at 26—52 weeks is a new recommendation, because some kittens have residual interfering antibodies, even at 16 weeks, sufficient to prevent successful immunization.
Exposure to virus should be avoided until 1 week after the initial vaccination series has been completed. Therefore, testing of strays or adopted cats is inconclusive, since it is impossible to know whether or not they have been vaccinated in the past.
For these reasons, a positive FIV antibody test by itself should never be used as a criterion for euthanasia.
Tests can be performed in a vet's office with results in minutes, allowing for quick consultation. Early detection helps maintain the cat's health and prevents spreading infection to other cats.
With proper care, infected cats can live long and healthy lives. The absence of any observed adverse events in several animal species suggests that the product has a very low toxicity profile.
Purification of protein from bovine-derived stromal cell supernatants produces a substantially homogeneous factor, free of extraneous materials.
The bovine protein is homologous with other mammalian species and is a homogeneous 50 kDa glycoprotein with an isoelectric point of 6.
The protein is prepared in a lyophilized 1 microgram dose. Reconstitution in sterile diluent produces a solution for subcutaneous injection.
As with HIV, the development of an effective vaccine against FIV is difficult because of the high number and variations of the virus strains.
For these reasons the vaccine is considered "non-core", and the decision to vaccinate should be made after discussion with a veterinarian and consideration of the risks vs.
FIV displays a similar structure to the primate and ungulate lentiviruses. The virion has a diameter from 80 to nanometers and is pleomorphic.
The FIV virus genome is diploid. It consists of two identical single-strands of RNA in each case about nucleotides existing in plus-strand orientation.
It has the typical genomic structure of retroviruses, including the gag , pol , and env genes. The Pol polyprotein is translated by ribosomal frame-shifting, a feature shared with HIV.
An additional short ORF termed orfA also known as orf2 precedes the env gene. The function of OrfA in viral replication is unclear, however the orfA -encoded product may display many of the attributes of HIV-1 accessory gene products such as Vpr, Vpu or Nef.
The capsid protein derived from the polyprotein Gag is assembled into a viral core the protein shell of a virus and the matrix protein also derived from Gag forms a shell immediately inside of the lipid bilayer.
Both SU and TM glycoproteins are heavily glycosylated, a characteristic that scientists believe may mask the B-cell epitopes of the Env glycoprotein giving the virus resistance to the virus neutralizing antibodies.
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Word Lists. Choose your language. Praxisrelevante fragen anhand eines fallbeispiels" [Feline panleukopenia. Practical questions based on a case study].
Tierärztliche Praxis. In Greene CE ed. Infectious diseases of the dog and cat. Philadelphia: WB Saunders.
Treatment of dogs naturally infected with canine parvovirus with lyophilized canine IgG. June 10—13, Veterinary Pathology. Veterinary Microbiology.
Annual Review of Virology. Veterinary Journal. Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift. Retrieved 30 May Laboratory Animal Medicine.
The Journal of Small Animal Practice. Vaccines and vaccination". Vaccination for animal health: an overview". American Journal of Veterinary Research.
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